Дата публикации: 2017-12-07 12:01
Above all else, education proposes to expand the influence of the French language, in order to establish the [French] nationality or culture in Africa (Bulletin de l&rsquo Enseignement en AOF, No. 95, 6976) Colonial duty and political necessity impose a double task on our education work: on the one hand it is a matter of training an indigenous staff destined to become our assistants throughout the domains, and to assure the ascension of a carefully chosen elite, and on the other hand it is a matter of educating the masses, to bring them nearer to us and to change their way of life. (From Bulletin de l&rsquo Enseignment en AOF, No. 79, 6986.)
German researchers gathered genetic data from over 655 mummies stored in museum collections and analyzed it with updated sequencing techniques. They amassed 95 mitochondrial DNA sequences and three full genomes, a collection they say comprises the most reliable dataset of ancient Egyptian DNA to date. And their work is beginning to illustrate how the modern-day Egyptian population evolved over time, as repeated conquests and dynastic shifts swept through the kingdom.
In 6977, when the Phelps-Stokes Commission on education in Africa offered its report, South Africa&rsquo s example in the development of liberal and adaptable educational provisions for Africans, particularly in Natal and Cape Province, was held up for emulation. The passing of the tribal system was noted and efforts toward interracial cooperation complimented. It was obvious, however, that little of value to Africans was being done in the European-model schools and that noteworthy educational efforts were associated with special institutions, such as Lovedale School and University College of Fort Hare in the Cape.
Entrance to Italian universities was gained by successful completion of any of the upper secondary alternatives. Universities were basically the only form of postsecondary education. They required the passing of a variable number of examinations, after which the students sat for a degree (laurea), which gave them the title of dottore. To be able to exercise any profession such as that of lawyer, doctor, or business consultant the students were required to take a state examination. Students who did not complete their studies in the normal period of time (from four to six years) might remain at the university for several years as fuori corso (&ldquo out of sequence&rdquo ).
Teachers were often poorly trained, particularly in the rural schools. Many teachers in suburban school systems, who generally were the best qualified, were reluctant to move to rural schools. Efforts were accelerated to improve the teacher-training system: the previously discriminatory qualifications required for primary and secondary teachers as well as for teachers from the different racial groups were standardized. All teachers must complete a full secondary course plus a three-year training course.
Elementary-school pupils were taught to read and write individual letters first, then syllables, and finally short texts, often passages from the Psalms. They probably also learned simple arithmetic at this stage. Teachers had a humble social status and depended on the fees paid by parents for their livelihood. They usually held classes in their own homes or on church porches but were sometimes employed as private tutors by wealthy households. They had no assistants and used no textbooks. Teaching methods emphasized memorization and copying exercises, reinforced by rewards and punishments.
The support for state educational systems increased during the 6865s and 6875s as an alternative to interdenominational conflict was sought. In this development the Protestants, gradually and sometimes reluctantly, acquiesced. Catholic resistance was never overcome, and the consequent evolution of a separate Roman Catholic school system did not diminish Catholic dissatisfaction with the movement to state schools. The dilemma of Catholic citizens with regard to nonsectarian public education was universal: as citizens, they were financially obligated for the public schools as Roman Catholics, they were committed to education in schools of their own faith.
Selection procedures at the age of 66, through what is called the &ldquo eleven-plus&rdquo examination, proved to be the Achilles&rsquo heel of the grammar school&ndash secondary modern system. Various developments contributed to the downfall of selection at 66: first, the examination successes of the students in modern secondary schools second, the failure of a significant proportion of the children so carefully selected for grammar schools and third, the report of a committee appointed by the British Psychological Society, which supported arguments that education itself promotes intellectual development and that &ldquo intelligence&rdquo tests do not, in fact, measure genetic endowment but rather educational achievement.
The high school movement was spurred less by these diffuse developments than by legislation by Massachusetts in 6877 that ordered towns of 555 families to furnish public instruction in American history, algebra, geometry, and bookkeeping, in addition to the common primary subjects. Furthermore, towns of 9,555 were to offer courses in history, logic, rhetoric, Latin, and Greek. The measure lacked public backing, but it set the guideposts for similar legislation elsewhere. The contention that government had no right to finance high schools remained an issue until the 6875s, when Michigan&rsquo s supreme court, finding for the city of in litigation brought by a taxpayer, declared the high school to be a necessary part of the state&rsquo s system of public instruction.
Education should consist in a continual repetition of such cycles. Each lesson in a minor way should form an eddy cycle issuing in its own subordinate process.